Test Bank For Practice of Nursing Research Appraisal Synthesis 7th Edition By Grove Burns

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Test Bank For Practice of Nursing Research Appraisal Synthesis 7th Edition By Grove Burns

Chapter 2: Evolution of Research in Building Evidence-Based Nursing Practice

Test Bank

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. In which way did Florence Nightingale contribute to evidence-based practice?

a.

She conducted research on outcomes and the power of nursing for change.

b.

She was the first woman elected to the Royal Statistical Society.

c.

She gathered data that changed the care of hospitalized soldiers.

d.

She calculated mortality rates under varying conditions.

ANS: C

Nightingale gathered data on soldier morbidity and mortality rates and the factors influencing them and presented her results in tables and pie charts, a sophisticated type of data presentation for the period. Nightingale’s research enabled her to instigate attitudinal, organizational, and social changes. She changed the attitudes of the military and society toward the care of the sick. The military began to view the sick as having the right to adequate food, suitable quarters, and appropriate medical treatment, which greatly reduced the mortality rate.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 17

2. If a nurse manager wants to study how well last year’s policies governing implementation of a “bundle” of interventions to prevent cross-contamination of MRSA have been working in her units, which of the following strategies would she use?

a.

Outcomes research

b.

Intervention research

c.

Ethnographic research

d.

Experimental research

ANS: A

Outcomes research emerged as an important methodology for documenting the effectiveness of health care services in the 1980s and 1990s. This type of research evolved from the quality assessment and quality assurance functions that originated with the professional standards review organizations (PSROs) in 1972. During the 1980s, William Roper, the director of the Health Care Finance Administration (HCFA), promoted outcomes research for determining the quality and cost-effectiveness of patient care. Intervention research investigates the effectiveness of a nursing intervention in achieving the desired outcome or outcomes in a natural setting. Through the use of ethnographic research, different cultures are described, compared, and contrasted to add to our understanding of the impact of culture on human behavior and health. Experimental studies have three main characteristics: (1) a controlled manipulation of at least one treatment variable (independent variable), (2) administration of the treatment to some of the subjects in the study (experimental group) and not to others (control group), and (3) random selection of subjects or random assignment of subjects to groups, or both. Experimental studies usually are conducted in highly controlled settings, such as laboratories or research units in clinical agencies.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: Page 22

3. A researcher publishes a paper describing how faith, pain, adherence to therapy, and meditation interact during the rehabilitation process. The description of the process is based on many interviews the researcher conducted with persons during and following rehabilitation experiences. The methodology is

a.

Ethnography

b.

Phenomenology

c.

Historical research

d.

Grounded theory

ANS: D

Grounded theory methodology emphasizes observation and the development of practice-based intuitive relationships among variables. Throughout the study, the researcher formulates, tests, and redevelops propositions until a theory evolves. The theory developed is “grounded,” or has its roots in, the data from which it was derived.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Synthesis REF: Page 27

4. A panel of researchers conducts several studies, all drawn from an existent hospital and clinic database. The studies focus on quality and effectiveness within that system. The specific studies address mortality rates in elders within a year after hip fracture, functional outcomes six months after admission to a neurosurgical ICU after traumatic brain injury, rate of nurse injuries in an emergency department, and number of patient falls on various floors of the hospital. What type of research is this?

a.

Experimental research

b.

Outcomes research

c.

Ethnographic research

d.

Grounded theory research

ANS: B

The spiraling cost of health care has generated many questions about the quality and effectiveness of health care services and the patient outcomes. Consumers want to know what services they are buying, and whether these services will improve their health. Health care policy makers want to know whether the care is cost-effective and of high quality. These concerns have promoted the development of outcomes research, which examines the results of care and measures the changes in health status of patients. It can also examine costs related to care delivery within a hospital system.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 27

5. A researcher designs a study. It depends on questionnaires for data, it has a clear purpose statement, it provides its results as a narrative without statistical analysis, and it makes general suggestions for practice. What type of research is this?

a.

Qualitative research

b.

Outcomes research

c.

Intervention research

d.

Quantitative research

ANS: D

Quantitative research is a formal, objective, systematic process in which numerical data are used to obtain information about the world. Qualitative research is also systematic, but it is a holistic, interactive, and subjective approach to describe life experiences and identify their meaning. Both types of research have a purpose statement and can use a survey instrument; however, neither depends on surveys for data. Both can contain suggestions for practice. Qualitative research results are presented as a narrative, without statistical analysis. Outcomes research examines the results of care and measures the changes in health status of patients. Intervention research investigates the effectiveness of a nursing intervention in achieving the desired outcome or outcomes in a natural setting.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 23

6. A newly employed nurse administrator wants to know more about the employees on the units the administrator supervises. The manager accesses the managerial database and gathers data about all of the current employees on the unit, including work shift, number of years employed, age, gender, educational preparation, certifications, work history, and professional accomplishments. What type of research is this?

a.

Descriptive research

b.

Correlational research

c.

Quasi-experimental research

d.

Experimental research

ANS: A

The quantitative research methods are classified into four categories: (1) descriptive, which defines the magnitude of a concept and its characteristics, (2) correlational, which determines association between or among variables, (3) quasi-experimental, which tests an intervention and lacks control in at least one of three areas, and (4) experimental, which tests an intervention and includes both a control group and random assignment. This is a research study, even though it depends upon existent data, collected by another manager. Its purpose is to describe the employees.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: Page 26

7. A human resources employee performs research focusing on the professional lifespan within the institution of nurses, and trying to discover whether their choice of work area is connected with the number of years they work in the institution. What type of research is this?

a.

Descriptive research

b.

Correlational research

c.

Quasi-experimental research

d.

Experimental research

ANS: B

The quantitative research methods are classified into four categories: (1) descriptive, which defines the magnitude of a concept and its characteristics, (2) correlational, which determines association between or among variables, (3) quasi-experimental, which tests an intervention and lacks control in at least one of three areas, and (4) experimental, which tests an intervention and includes both a control group and random assignment. This study investigates the connection or association between work area and length of time worked.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: Page 26

8. In an attempt to assess whether selection of a same-gender psychiatrist leads to better mental health outcomes, clients newly referred for mental health services are told they may choose their mental health physicians. Later, measures of mental health are performed. What type of research is this?

a.

Descriptive research

b.

Correlational research

c.

Quasi-experimental research

d.

Experimental research

ANS: C

The quantitative research methods are classified into four categories: (1) descriptive, which defines the magnitude of a concept and its characteristics, (2) correlational, which determines association between or among variables, (3) quasi-experimental, which tests an intervention and lacks control in at least one of three areas, and (4) experimental, which tests an intervention and includes both a control group and random assignment. This research study is designed to test an intervention but does not include random assignment.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: Page 26

9. In a rehabilitation unit, patients are randomly assigned to high fiber diets versus ordinary fiber diets, in order to measure the effect on constipation. What type of research is this?

a.

Descriptive research

b.

Correlational research

c.

Quasi-experimental research

d.

Experimental research

ANS: D

The quantitative research methods are classified into four categories: (1) descriptive, which defines the magnitude of a concept and its characteristics, (2) correlational, which determines association between or among variables, (3) quasi-experimental, which tests an intervention and lacks either a control group or random assignment, and (4) experimental, which tests an intervention and includes both a control group and random assignment. This research study tests an intervention and includes both a control group and random assignment.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: Page 26

10. A researcher uses interviews with two or three open-ended questions to study women in the staging phase of breast cancer treatment, in order to understand their experiences and the meanings they attribute to those experiences. What type of research is this?

a.

Phenomenologic research

b.

Grounded theory research

c.

Ethnographic research

d.

Historicism

ANS: A

Phenomenologic research examines the lived experiences of participants and the meanings those experiences hold for them, drawing its results only from the participants’ views. Grounded theory research defines under-researched concepts and explains them within a social framework, building on both observation and the perceptions of the persons who are familiar with the concepts, and sometimes generating theory; it emphasizes interaction, observation, and development of relationships among concepts. Ethnography defines shared characteristics of members of a culture or participants who share in a common characteristic, and explains commonalities, often within a cultural framework, using observation, interview, and other data collection strategies; through the use of ethnographic research, different cultures are described, compared, and contrasted to add to our understanding of the impact of culture on the human experience. Historicism tells the story of past events, reconstructing these from other historical references, interviews, artifacts, art, and other sources that reflect the time of interest.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: Page 27

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