Test Bank For Accounting for Decision Making and Control for the 9th Edition Solution

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Test Bank For Accounting for Decision Making and Control for the 9th Edition Solution

Chapter 2

The Nature of Costs

P 2-1: Solution to Darien Industries (10 minutes)

[Relevant costs and benefits]

Current cafeteria income

Sales$12,000

Variable costs (40% × 12,000)(4,800)

Fixed costs(4,700)

Operating income$2,500

Vending machine income

Sales (12,000 × 1.4)$16,800

Darien’s share of sales

  (.16 × $16,800) 2,688

Increase in operating income$ 188

P 2-2: Negative Opportunity Costs (10 minutes)

[Opportunity cost]

Yes, when the most valuable alternative to a decision is a net cash outflow that would have occurred is now eliminated.  The opportunity cost of that decision is negative (an opportunity benefit).  For example, suppose you own a house with an in-ground swimming pool you no longer use or want.  To dig up the pool and fill in the hole costs $3,000.  You sell the house instead and the new owner wants the pool.  By selling the house, you avoid removing the pool and you save $3,000.  The decision to sell the house includes an opportunity benefit (a negative opportunity cost) of $3,000.

P 2-3: Solution to NPR  (10 minutes)

[Opportunity cost of radio listeners]

The quoted passage ignores the opportunity cost of listeners’ having to forego normal programming for on-air pledges.  While such fundraising campaigns may have a low out-of-pocket cost to NPR, if they were to consider the listeners’ opportunity cost, such campaigns may be quite costly.

P 2-4: Solution to Silky Smooth Lotions (15 minutes)

[Break even with multiple products]

Given that current production and sales are: 2,000, 4,000, and 1,000  cases of 4, 8, and 12 ounce bottles, construct of lotion bundle to consist of 2 cases of 4 ounce bottles, 4 cases of 8 ounce bottles, and 1 case of 12 ounce bottles.   The following table calculates the break-even number of lotion bundles to break even and hence the number of cases of each of the three products required to break even.

Per Case

4 ounce

8 ounce

12 ounce

Bundle

Price

$36.00 

$66.00 

$72.00 

Variable cost

$13.00 

$24.50 

$27.00 

Contribution margin

$23.00 

$41.50 

$45.00 

Current production

2000

4000

1000

Cases per bundle

2

4

1

Contribution margin per bundle

$46.00 

$166.00 

$45.00 

$257.00 

Fixed costs

$771,000

Number of bundles to break even

3000

Number of cases to break even

6000

12000

3000

P 2-5: Solution to J. P. Max Department Stores (15 minutes)

[Opportunity cost of retail space]

Home Appliances

 Televisions

Profits after fixed cost allocations

$64,000

$82,000

Allocated fixed costs

  7,000

  8,400

Profits before fixed cost  allocations

71,000

90,400

Lease Payments

  72,000

  86,400

Forgone Profits

– $1,000

$  4,000

We would rent out the Home Appliance department, as lease rental receipts are more than the profits in the Home Appliance Department.  On the other hand, profits generated by the Television Department are more than the lease rentals if leased out, so we continue running the TV Department.  However, neither is being charged inventory holding costs, which could easily change the decision.

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